Posteado por: LizardQueen88 | junio 10, 2008

Questionnaire 2 (2nd Part)

1. Ontologies for Content Procesing:

  • Refinement and extension of knowledge infrastructure and domain ontologies constructed during the first 12 months of the project, referring to clarity, adherence to standards, appropriateness for performance reasons, and completeness with regard to multimedia descriptors.
  • Continued research and development of the knowledge-assisted multimedia content analysis tools to support automatic generation of semantic metadata for the ACE metadata layer.
  • Research and development of algorithms for high-level multimedia reasoning tools focusing on the support of analysis of ACE multimedia content.
  • Continued research, development and implementation of ontological text analysis, face and person detection tools.
  • Continued research of context modelling, representation, detection and analysis techniques to provide tools for context-sensitive ACE content analysis and usage.
  • Continued development of the aceToolbox framework, providing content pre-processing to support knowledge extraction, extended with temporal analysis algorithms

2.CALL:

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) originates from CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction). The philosophy of CAI or CALL is that the lessons should allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.

Some people may call it a courseware, an educational computerized program. CALL is not a software in the sense that it is not an application program or a utility program. This basic definition will distinguish CALL from other software applications. Therefore, given the definition and features of CALL, word processing program, spreadsheet program, graphic presentation software such as PowerPoint, Internet (a general term) are not considered as CALL. Chat, e-mail, and forum cannot be categorized as CALL since they do not provide interactive learning materials and individualized learning. Interactive does not simply mean giving reaction to learners’ input. Interactive in CALL means feedbacks are given after learners’ inputs are assessed by the system to help learners improve their language competency, which may include language skills. In addition, interactive features in CALL ensure that learning process takes place when learners engage in the lessons. Well-programmed interactive CALL lessons will provide feedbacks in terms of scores, guidelines, and customized lessons that are suitable for individual learners to move on. The design of CALL lessons must take into considerations some language pedagogical principles which may be derived from learning theories (behaviorism, cognitive, and constructivism) and second language learning such as Krahshen’s Monitor Theory.

Others may call CALL an approach to teaching and learning foreign languages whereby the computer and computer-based resources such as the Internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned. CALL can be made independent of the Internet. It can stand alone for example in a CDROM format. Depending on its design and objectives, it may include a substantial interactive element especially when CALL is integrated in web-based format. It may include the search for and the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning. Except for self-study software, CALL is meant to supplement face-to-face language instruction, not replace it.

CALL has also been known by several other terms such as technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), computer-assisted language instruction (CALI) and computer-aided language learning but the field is the same. For further information see the ICT4LT website, especially Section 1 of Module 1.4, headed “What is CALL?”:

3. Computational linguistics:

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and/or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. This modeling is not limited to any particular field of linguistics. Traditionally, computational linguistics was usually performed by computer scientists who had specialized in the application of computers to the processing of a natural language. Recent research has shown that human language is much more complex than previously thought, so computational linguists often work as members of interdisciplinary teams, including linguists (specifically trained in linguistics), language experts (persons with some level of ability in the languages relevant to a given project), and computer scientists. In general computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, computer scientists, experts in artificial intelligence, cognitive psychologists, mathematicians, and logicians, amongst others.

References:


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